Because of this close association, removal of the parotid gland i. In surgical cases, when there is an interneural vein that travels between the motor and sensory branches at the nerve root entry zone, this vein can be removed, relieving pressure on the nerve. During surgical dissection, the surgeon may encounter a branch from the occipital artery that lies lateral to the facial nerve. Patients who possess or believe they possess facial deformities are often severely impacted. The most important landmarks for identifying the facial nerve in the mastoid are the horizontal semicircular canal, the fossa incudis, and the digastric ridge. The labyrinthine segment is the narrowest part of the facial nerve and is susceptible to compression by means of edema.
Supranuclear pyramidal lesions spare movements of the face initiated as emotional responses and reflexes. The facial muscles are innervated by facial nerve cranial nerve VII , with each nerve serving one side of the face. Nerve fibers influencing emotional facial expression are thought to arise in the thalamus and globus pallidus. The main trunk courses into the mesenchyme, approaching the epibranchial placode. Recommended for You Muscles of the Gluteal Region. For example, a line drawn between the mastoid tip and the angle of the mandible can serve as a useful landmark for the superior limits of a neck dissection.
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The Radial Nerve - Course - Motor - Sensory - TeachMeAnatomy
With the lateral and medial heads of the triceps innervated, the radial nerve emerges from the radial groove on the lateral aspect of the humerus. The vestibulocochlear nerve enters the IAC inferiorly caudad. Which muscles are affected if the superficial branch of the radial nerve is damaged? The stylohyoid muscle , stapedius and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are also innervated by the facial nerve, but are not considered muscles of facial expression. Common Fibular Portion — Short head of biceps femoris, all muscles in the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg and extensor digitorum brevis.
Description: The pontine facial nerve nucleus is divided into an upper and a lower half, bilaterally. It is accompanied by the superior gluteal artery and vein for much of its course. Of these, the facial nerve innervates 14 of the 17 paired muscle groups of the face on their deep side. It goes through the arm, first in the posterior compartment of the arm , and later in the anterior compartment of the arm , and continues in the posterior compartment of the forearm. All muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg.